Here are some of the most common health issues around, along with causes and treatments (if possible). If anything is worrying you, talk to your doctor and see how they can help.



Constipation is a common condition that affects people of all ages. It can mean that you’re not passing stools regularly or you’re unable to completely empty your bowel.

Constipation can also cause your stools to be hard and lumpy, as well as unusually large or small.

Many people only experience constipation for a short time, but unfortunately for others, constipation can be a long-term (chronic) condition that causes significant pain and discomfort and affects the quality of life.


Diet and lifestyle changes are usually recommended as the first treatment for constipation.

This includes gradually increasing your daily intake of fibre, making sure you drink plenty of fluids and trying to get more exercise. If these aren’t effective, your doctor may prescribe an oral laxative medication that can help you empty your bowels.

Treatment for constipation is effective, although in some cases it can take several months before a regular bowel pattern is re-established.

(Being Discreet)

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Asthma is a common lung condition that occasionally makes it hard to breathe. It affects people of all ages and often starts in childhood, although it can also appear for the first time in adulthood.


There’s currently no cure for asthma, but there are simple treatments that can help keep the symptoms under control, so it doesn’t have a big impact on your life. Some people, (mostly children) may eventually grow out of asthma. But for others, it’s a lifelong condition.

Most asthma treatments are taken using an inhaler, a small device that delivers a spray or powder medicine to your breathing tubes as you breathe in.

Asthma is caused by inflammation (swelling) of the breathing tubes that carry air in and out of the lungs. This inflammation makes the tubes highly sensitive, so they temporarily become narrow. This may occur randomly, or after exposure to a trigger. The tubes may also sometimes become clogged with sticky mucus.

Triggers include allergens, such as house dust mites, animal fur and pollens. Also, cigarette smoke, strong smells, cold air, exercise and chest infections can all cause an attack.


The term ‘obese’ describes a person who is very overweight, with a lot of body fat.


Obesity is generally caused by consuming more calories (particularly those in fatty and sugary foods) than you burn off through physical activity. The excess energy is stored by the body as fat.

Obesity is an increasingly common problem because for many people modern living involves eating excessive amounts of cheap, high-calorie foods and spending a lot of time sitting down, at desks, on sofas or in cars.

The best way to treat obesity is to eat a healthy, reduced-calorie diet and exercise regularly. So eat a balanced, calorie-controlled diet as recommended by your doctor or weight loss management health professional. Join a local weight loss group, take up activities such as fast walking, jogging, swimming or tennis for two and a half to five hours a week, eat slowly and avoid situations where you know you could be tempted to overeat. You may also benefit from receiving psychological support from a trained healthcare professional to help change the way you think about food and eating.


Cancer is a condition where cells in a specific part of the body grow and reproduce uncontrollably. The cancerous cells can invade and destroy surrounding healthy tissue, including organs.

Cancer sometimes begins in one part of the body before spreading to other areas. This process is known as metastasis. There are more than 200 different types of cancer, and each is diagnosed and treated in a particular way.


Surgery is the first treatment offered for most types of cancer, as solid tumours can usually be surgically removed. Two other commonly used treatment methods are chemotherapy (a powerful cancer-killing medication) and/or radiotherapy (the controlled use of high-energy X-rays.)


Arthritis is a common condition that causes pain and inflammation in a joint. The two most common types of arthritis are osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. The symptoms of arthritis you experience will vary depending on the type you have. This is why it’s important to have an accurate diagnosis if you have joint pain, tenderness, stiffness, inflammation in and around the joints, restricted movement of the joints, warm red skin over the affected joint or weakness and muscle wasting.


There’s no cure for arthritis, but there are many treatments that can help slow down the condition.

Medications are often prescribed, including painkillers, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids and in severe cases, surgical procedures may be recommended like arthroplasty (joint replacement), arthrodesis (joint fusion) and osteotomy (where a bone is cut and realigned.)


Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a group of behavioural symptoms that include inattentiveness, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness.

Symptoms of ADHD tend to be noticed at an early age and may become more noticeable when a child’s circumstances change, such as when they start school. Most cases are diagnosed when children are 6 to 12 years old. The symptoms of ADHD usually improve with age, but many adults who are diagnosed with the condition at a young age continue to experience problems.

People with ADHD may also have additional problems, such as sleep and anxiety disorders.


Although there’s no cure for ADHD, it can be managed with appropriate educational support, advice and support for parents and affected children, alongside medication, if necessary.

Medication is often the first treatment offered to adults with ADHD, although psychological therapies such as cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) may also help.

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